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Continents are not Drifting, but Rising

The Fossils of trilobites an ancient marine insect which lived on sea floor before five hundred million years, but now found on all the seven continents especially on mountains which indicates that all the continents had once been under the ocean and now rose to the present height.

The sea organisms which lived in shallow sea water get buried alive when there is a land slide along with soil and wet mud. Later when this portion of the shore rises up above sea level, these buried insects after millions of years would have become fossils.

The continuous process of rising of mountains from below the sea enables us to find the fossils of the sea organisms in rocks found on mountains. While the mountains continue to rise, the surrounding areas experience landslides and this in turn exposes the fossils of the embedded sea organisms.

The fossils of Trilobite have been found on the mountains of all the seven continents of the world and in more than thirty places on earth. This clearly shows that these mountains and continents have surfaced from below the sea.*[1] To be specific, thousands of fossils of Trilobite are found on the three continents surrounding the Pacific Ocean . The continent of North America is situated on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean . Burgess quarry which is situated on the Rocky Mountain in British Columbia , there are about 30, 000 fossils of Trilobite are found on the exposed slate. This place is about 500 miles away from the Pacific Ocean and at 8000 feet high above the sea level.

On the western side of the Pacific Ocean, the continent of Asia is situated. In the chengjiang district of China recently numerous buried fossils of Trilobite have been discovered on the mountain regions. This mountain region is 350 miles away from the sea and 6200 feet above sea level.*[2]

Recently marine fossils have also been discovered in the land locked Sichuan region where the huge earthquake rocked.*[3] On the southern region of the Pacific Ocean, the continent of Australia is located. On the southern side of this continent, Adelaide Harbor is situated. On Ediyacara Mountain which is 650 kilometers on the northern side also fossils of Trilobite have been found.. This mountain region is 1900 feet above sea level. The three places, where the buried fossils of Trilobite were found lie around the Pacific Ocean and are hundreds of miles away and thousands of feet higher than sea level which clearly shows that all these land surfaces have risen from the depth of the Pacific Ocean .

An important feature to be noted is that all the land lies on one side and the Pacific Ocean on the other side. The total area of the Pacific Ocean is 5.9 million square miles. This is more than the area of all the land on the earth put together. The Pacific Ocean is connected with all the other oceans of the earth. Three fourths of water and one fourth of land is what we see on the earth. Hence, as the land rose gradually, the remains of sea animals are found on the mountains.

The fossils of a sea animal called Trilobite which lived 500 million years ago under water have been unearthed on the mountains all over the earth. This proves that millions of years ago, all these mountains were under the sea and have gradually risen above sea level.


How do fossils form? In the case of the fossils of Trilobite found on mountains, there is no reason to state that the seas would have receded from the mountains. It is because, when the land rises suddenly, land slides are caused and the sea organisms get buried in the mud and slush and when this rises above sea level, due course they become fossils. Hence there is no question of sea receding and exposing the remains and fossils. The real reason for the fossils of Trilobite to be found on the mountains is that, the mountains which were under the sea have risen above the sea level.

Therefore the fossils of the sea arthropod Trilobite are found on the seven continents of the world, it is proved that all the seven continents were once under the sea and have risen above sea level.

(2).Dinosaurs fossils Challenge Drifting Continents Theory

The mesosaurus fossils mystery

South America and Africa are separated by the Atlantic Ocean . But, in both these continents the bones of a giant sized lizard, Mesosaurs which was a land animal found. Based on this fact, Albert Wagener, a meteorologist raised a question as to how the same type of animal could be found in different continents when they are separated by oceans? and concluded that previously they should have been one single continent. but in the dinosaurus time land connection existed between the continents due to low sea level through which the animals migrated from one continent to other continent. later the rising of sea level seperated the continents. for example In the Bering Strait which separates North America from Russia ’s Siberia , a land connection served as a bridge of land for all animals like woolly mammoth, wild buffaloes, lions, bears rabbits and cave men.

To support this theory, in Siberia, in the Yana river valley, the Stone Age tools used by man and numerous bones of animals were found. Like this land bridge which is known as Beringia there should have been many land bridges between continents , through which the dinosaurs would have moved and spread. Researchers said that other than this it was not possible for the continents to move Wagener refused to believe the concept about land bridges but argued that continents are moving. 200 million years ago, a huge continent named Pangaea got divided in to two continents called Laurasia and Gondwana. 150 million years ago the continent Gondwana broke in to many pieces and formed South America, Africa, Australia and India .

Among this, India moved in a north eastern direction, crossed the equator 45 million years ago and collided with the continent Asia . On account of this, the Himalayas were formed. Wagener also said that this was cause for the earthquakes to occur there. The giant lizards which were said to be as evidence for Wagener‘s concept of moving continents have today become the opposing features. palaeontologist unearthed fossils of 95 million year old dinosaurus named as Rugops primus in africa which closely related South American and Indian dinosaurus.*(4)

Professor Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago who conducted the excavation has said, “We cannot get the closely related species without transport”. *(5)

The problem here is that according to Pangaea’s concept, all these continents got separated 150 million years ago and have been isolated by the seas and oceans. So, the question now is that, how a species which evolved after the separation of continents spread to other continents? to solve this problem the researchers who believe the drifting continents concept has now offer a new explanation. recently researchers believe that the Gondwana an imaginary super continent splited,perhaps as early as 120 million years ago instead of 150 million years cherished by wegenor.


But after the discovery 95 million year old dinosaurus bones in africa , now the researchers have explained that, the continent Gondwana should have got separated at a later stage about 100 million years ago, and even after that there should have been many temporary land bridges between the drifting continents, for a longer period of time, through which the dinosaurs would have traveled to and fro.*(6)

But the discovery of 65 million years old dinosaurus fossils in india named as rajasaurus narmadensis also closely resembled the dinosaurus fosslils of the South America Africa and Madagascar.*(7), According to the Pangaea concept, India was an island continent 65 million years ago. Dinosaurs which evolved during that period and lived in the other parts of the world had no opportunity to enter India ..It was because, India was surrounded by sea. But, the skeletons of dinosaurs have been found in India. Therefore India had never been an island continent. It is proved that as at present; it had joined Asia . On account of this problem Professor Jeffery Wilson of the University of Michigan has said, “The statement that India had moved has not been substantiated with direction and time.*(8)

But, Paleontologists have said that, fifty million years ago that is even before Mount Everest came into being , dinosaurs like Rajasaurus had entered India. therefore it is proved that India had always been part of the continent, Asia . Dinosaurs have lived in Antarctica and Australia . Similar to the land bridge which was formed in Bering Strait area due to the rising of the land which made the sea recede and paved way for animals to move from one continent to another. Hence, the continents did not move; it is only the animals which moved from one place to another.

If continents do not move, how do earthquakes occur? Earthquakes occur only due to the rising of the land from below the sea to above the sea level. The fossils of sea animals that are found on thousands of feet high mountains including the Everest are the best examples for this. Apart from the rising of land low sea level is also a reason for the presence of fossils of same kind of animals on different continents which has been separated by Wide Ocean .

(3) Forty thousand years ago, the sea level was about four thousand feet lower than it is now.
Did Stone Age people undertake Sea Voyage?

Sandwiched between the continents of Asia and Australia , islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores , Timor etc. are situated in a long strip. The caves of the island of Flores were inhabited by 3-foot dwarfish Stone Age humans, perhaps as early as 1..8 million years ago, whose bones and the stone tools used by them have been unearthed by the archeologists of Australia during an excavation.*[9]

The bones of the Stone Age humans who lived forty thousand years ago in this region, have already been unearthed by the researchers from Timor Island situated near the island continent of Australia . It is not an easy task to reach the islands of Flores and Timor. Specifically, the islands of Sumbawa, Flores and Timor are found in the ocean region which has a depth of four thousand feet.

Lombok Island in particular, is thirty kilometers away from the island of Bali . A dangerous strait called “Sape” is running between these two islands. Hence, ships with sails and motor boats alone can cross this sea strait. This has given rise to controversies and arguments among the scientists as to how the Stone Age man could have crossed this dangerous region between the Flores and Timor islands.

The bones and tools of Stone Age people have been unearthed in India and Sri Lanka which are separated by a six hundred feet deep sea. Researchers are of the opinion that, ten thousand years ago, when the sea level was six hundred feet lower than the present level, Stone Age people should have migrated from India to Sri Lanka .

Researchers believe that later the ice which was above the land should have melted and raised the level of the sea level for about six hundred feet. But it is a surprise that how the Stone Age people went to Flores Timor islands and the continent of Australia , which have been separated by a four thousand feet deep sea. Researcher Tim White says that, Stone Age dwarf people might have been brought from Bali Island to Flores Island by Tsunami waves.

But researcher Robert Bednarik says that the currents that are running between the Indonesian islands can only be crossed over by boats made of wood like catamarans using oars. He not only said this, but also tests his idea by traveling from Bali Island to Lombok Island a few times. This voyage in catamarans was made into documentaries by BBC News Channel and National Geographic Channel. *[10]

The catamaran should be made by stone tools was the prime condition. But, when bamboos were cut by these stone tools, they developed cracks. If a catamaran was made with such bamboos, instead of floating it would sink in the sea. Hence, this important condition was overlooked and the catamaran was made by using iron tools. *!11) In the same way, using stones, it was impossible to make even a single oar. even after rowing continuously for twelve hours, the idea of reaching Lombok Island did not succeed.

How could have Stone Age people crossed the sea which was not possible even by the present day men?

Referring to this, researcher Loin Davidson says that from the past two and a half lakh years to seventy thousand years, there has not been a large change in the stone tools that have been used by the Stone Age men. They seem to be similar. Hence, the intelligence level in these men might not have undergone much of a change. This proves that the Stone Age men would not have planned long sea voyages using their limited intelligence, says Davidson. *[12]

Moreover, the continent of Australia is thousand kilometers away from Timor Island and is not visible from Timor Island . Hence, would the Stone Age men venture a sea voyage towards a destination that was not visible? In addition to this, it took six days for the Robert Bednarik group to cross the deep sea between Timor Island and the continent of Australia . Would the Stone Age men have ventured a similar day and night sea voyage? What would they have done for food and water for six days?

“Barbarians did not undertake any sea voyages. It was the sea that was four thousand feet lower at that time?’ Hence, the finding of bones and stone tools of Stone Age men who lived forty thousand years ago in the continent of Australia, which was separated from the continent of Asia by a four thousand feet deep sea, proves that forty thousand years ago, the sea level was about four thousand feet lower in the Indonesian region.

Hence, forty thousand year ago, a land connected the continent of Asia and the continent of Australia . Through this strip of land, the Stone Age people of the continent of Asia went by foot to the continent of Australia . Later, when the sea level rose, the land also split in different places and rose up along with the rising sea which resulted in the formation of many islands. On account of this, the Stone Age men were unable to leave the islands and were isolated there.

Why did the land rise? Why did the sea level rise?

The molted rock material found inside the earth gradually cooled down and hardened to form rocky plates in different layers. On account of this phenomenon, water, gases and oil were separated from the molten rock which reduced the thickness of the rocky plates. As the thinner rocky plates formed from the thick molten rock moved upwards, the land surface also rose. At the same time, while the molten rock cooled, the water which was separated from it, formed hot water springs under the sea, which raised the sea level up to four thousand feet. When the land surface rises suddenly from the sea floor, natural disasters like earthquakes, landslides and Tsunami are caused.

(4)Twenty million years ago, the sea level had been ten thousand five hundred feet lower than it is now.

In1835, Charles Darwin, a scientist visited the Galapagos Island which is situated about thousand kilometers from South America in the Pacific Ocean . On the island, he saw a number of giant tortoises. He was surprised as to how these creatures came to that island. It was because each tortoise weighed two hundred and fifty kilos and looked like rocks. They would be unable to float on water even for a second.

Researchers are of the opinion that these tortoises could have climbed on the branches which were carried away by sudden floods in the river and forced them into the sea. They would have traveled for about two weeks and reached the island. But, the branches will not float in a manner suggested by them. They usually keep turning and rolling. These tortoises have no toes and their legs resemble that of the elephants’. Hence, it would not have been possible for them to travel without rolling and falling into the sea when the branches were rolling and tossing.

The important question is how they survived for two weeks without food and water. Researchers say that sufficient fats and water were stored in their body which would have helped them to live without food for two weeks. But, Trevor Worth, a research scientist found the jaw bone and the thigh bones of a rat like animal which could have lived nineteen million years ago in New Zealand, a place two thousand kilo meters away from the continent of Australia.

Michael Archer, an paleontologist is of the opinion that as the upper part of the thigh bone is broader than the lower part, this animal would have been hopping and moving and would not have been able to travel on a floating branch to reach the island. *[13] Researchers say that traveling to Galapagos which is nearly thousand kilometers from South America on a floating branch would take two weeks for the tortoises to reach there.

When this is the case, to reach New Zealand which is in Australia about two thousand kilometers away by traveling on a floating branch will take a minimum four weeks. Could a small rat like animal have survived without food and particularly water, for such a long period? To be specific, the island of New Zealand is situated in a place where the sea is of ten thousand feet depth. So, as the sea level had been ten thousand feet lower, there had been some connection between the continents and using this, these animals must have reached here from the continents by way of walking. Later on the sea level could have risen. Moreover, bones of dinosaurs have been unearthed in the island Chatham , *[14] which is close to New Zealand . As the sea level had been ten thousand feet lower, even dinosaurs could have migrated from continent to continent.

Instead of this, researchers say that all the continents were together before and then slowly moved away from each other is incorrect. The reason for the rising of the sea level about ten thousand feet high is the continuous flow of water from hot water springs found under the sea.

The molten rock found under the crust of the earth gradually cools and hardens to form rocky plates. The water which is eliminated during this process only comes out through hot water springs. As the water gets separated from the dense molten rock, it gets converted into rocky plates which are of lesser density and these start rising upwards there by making the continents also to rise. When the rocky plates in a particular area rise like this, they rub against the adjacent plates and this only results in an earth quake in that area.

“Only the rising of the rocky plates causes earth quakes”

(5,)Animals on remote island indicates ancient low sea level..

Chameleons are animals which originated twenty million of years ago. Chameleons cannot swim. But, they are found not only in the continent of Africa, but also in the islands of the Indian Ocean such as Madagascar , Seychelles and Comoros . These islands are situated at a depth of ten thousand five hundred feet (two miles) in the sea. Hence, twenty million years ago, as the sea was ten thousand five hundred feet (two miles) lower than it is now, from the continent of Africa, chameleons spread by way of land to Madagascar , Sussex and Comoros which are islands formed by volcanoes. In the same way, in many islands found in the middle of the sea, frogs, lizards and snails which cannot swim in the sea are found and this proves the fact that, twenty million years before the sea was ten thousand five hundred feet (two miles) lower than it is now.

Lizards and frogs.

As frogs live both on land and water, they are known as ‘amphibians.’ But frogs mostly spend their life time near water bodies. The main reason for this is, the first life which originated in the sea had to undergo a lot of evolutionary changes.

Frogs were breathing with the help of gills in the tadpole stage but, developed lungs in due course to lead a terrestrial life. But, the reason for frogs to live near water bodies is that, unlike snakes and lizards, frog’s eggs are smooth and slimy and are laid in shallow waters. If these eggs were exposed to wind or sunlight for a long time the water content in them will get evaporated and the embryo in the eggs will die.

Similarly, the skin of the frog is very thin and moist and so the frog always avoids windy and sunny places. Hence, frogs come out during rainy season and reproduce. The most important thing to be noted is that the frog cannot survive in sea water. It is because, when the excess salt from the sea water gets into its body, the frog will die. Under these circumstances, the reason for the presence of frogs on islands is that, twenty million years ago the sea level was two miles lower than it is now. When compared to frogs, we can say that lizards are a slightly advanced group of animals because they lay eggs which are protected by shells. Hence there is no necessity for the eggs to be laid in the water or near water. Moreover the body of lizards and garden lizards are covered with dry scales. This prevents the water in the body from being evaporated. So these animals have spread out far from water bodies.

The toes of lizards and garden lizards are capable of holding on to the branches of trees but are not designed to swim. So, the reason for wild lizards and garden lizards to live on many islands is that the sea level was two miles lower, twenty million of years ago. It is not possible to say that man would have taken them there, because on each island, the wild lizards are of different kinds. Likewise, after millions of years new species will evolve.
Hence, as the lizards and frogs are different from each other, it clearly shows that before man could inhabit those islands, these animals have gone there. So, the reason for wild lizards and frogs which cannot swim to live on many islands in the middle of the sea is that, the sea level was two miles lower, twenty million years ago.

Amber snails on Hawaii Island

On one side of the spherical earth, continents are situated and the other side comprises of the Pacific Ocean . Surrounding the Pacific Ocean, the continents of North America, South America, Asia and Australia are found. The volcanic island of Hawaii is situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean , more than two thousand kilo meters away from these land areas. But the amber snails which are in the color of amber and found in North America, South America, Asia and Australia are found on this island too. Definitely these amber snails could not have reached the volcanic island of Hawaii situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean , more than two thousand kilo meters away from these land areas by wind or water currents. Hence, these amber snails also prove that the Pacific Ocean had been lower before.

(6)The Ice age myth

Similarly, ice age is mentioned as a reason for the rising of the sea level. It is believed that 12,000 years ago most of the land was covered by layers of ice and snow and later when it melted and flowed into the sea, the level of the sea rose.

The reason for the occurrence of ice age was believed to be the changes that took place on the orbit of the earth. When the earth moved a little away from the sun and revolved around it, the temperature decreased and layers of ice were formed and when the earth moved closer to the sun and revolved, the temperature rose and this resulted in the melting of the layers of ice.

The contradiction is that, when the earth moves away from the sun and the temperature falls, the evaporation of sea water will also be reduced. So, the water which is already on land will only turn to ice. Similarly when the earth moves closer to the sun, the temperature will rise and at the same time, both the melting of ice as well as the evaporation of sea water will take place simultaneously and so, no noticeable change will take place in the level of the sea.

So, ice age is just an imaginary theory. so the melting of ice is not the reason for the rising of sea level in large scale.

(7)From where did the sea water originate?

Hence, ice age is not the reason for the sea to be two thousand feet low at a point of time and later rise upwards. In fact, thousands of hot water springs which are under the sea and letting out?

Hydrothermal vent Water even today is only responsible for the rise in the sea level.

(8) A submerged continent discovered under the Indian Ocean

(under two kilometer from the sea surface indicate the rising of sea level)

An American researchers haves discovered a submerged continent, at a depth of two kilo meters, in the southern part of the Indian Ocean .*[15] The volcanic island, Kerguelen is found near the continent of Antarctica, seven thousand kilo meters away on the southern tip of India .

This island was discovered in 1772, by a French sailor named Kerguelen. Hence this island is named after him. As seals are found in abundance surrounding this island, only seal hunters were using this island. At times researchers also visited the island and conducted researches.

Though this island is situated at the extreme end of the Indian Ocean and nearer to the continent of Antarctica, the flora found in this island is similar to that found in the continent of South America which had been a puzzle for a long time.

This puzzle is solved now.

The submerged continent
The island, Kerguelen and the surrounding three hundred tiny islands are situated on a plateau which is two kilometers below sea level. On the center of this submerged plateau, volcanic lava has flowed and cooled to form fossils in which the burnt parts of trees, seeds and pollen grains were found by researchers. Moreover researchers have found that these fossils were formed twenty million years ago.

Based on these findings, researchers have discovered that twenty million years ago this plateau had been above the sea level as a continent with dense forests. Twenty million years ago, when the sea level was two kilometers lower, there had been land connecting the continents and pieces of land which islands are at present. Through this connecting land, animals like the Dinosaur and the flora had spread from one continent to another and also the islands.

On account of this, the flora found on the island of Kerguelen is similar to those found on the continent of South America . Later, the sea rose up to two kilometers. This rise in the level of the sea resulted in the submerging of the continent which was once above the sea level. This continent which is three times larger in area than Japan is named by researchers as the Continent of Kerguelen.

What is the reason for the rising of sea level up to two kilometers high?
There are thousands of hot water springs below the sea. Through these springs, water from the interior of the earth is pushed out and continuously mixing with the sea. This water is formed when the molten rock from deep earth cools down and hardens to form rocky plates.. This water is known as “Molten Rock Water”. The water separated from the molten rock is expelled through the hot water springs and gets mixed with the sea, resulting in the rise of the sea level. When the sea rose two kilometers high, many islands and plateaus were submerged in the sea.

For example, researchers have discovered three volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean which were submerged two thousand feet deep in the western side of North America . The research conducted with the help of deep sea robots showed that the rocks eroded by waves, caves formed in the rocks by waves and pebbles were found near the under sea volcanoes.

Moreover, through research we come to know that due to the action of the wind on the volcanic lava, once upon a time, these rocks must have been thrown on the land which was situated above the sea level. Hence, the researchers are of the opinion that the volcanoes which are now submerged two thousand feet below the sea level had been in the past beautiful islands with seashores above the sea level. This submerged volcanoes proved that twenty million years ago, the sea level had been lower than it is at present.

(9) Islands are rising

The mystery of missing water

I will disclose another important matter. In the year 1990, environmental scientists released a very important report. In that they had stated that the atmosphere is heated too much and so the glaciers are melting and due to this action, within ten years the sea level will rise. They warned that when this happens, all the nine tiny islands like Tuvalu and Vanuatu will get submerged in the sea. Immediately, the President of Tuvalu which is in the Pacific Ocean wrote a letter to the president of New Zealand . He had stated that as per the calculations of the environmentalists, their island will get submerged in ten years time and in case such an event takes place, shelter has to be provided on compassionate grounds to the inhabitants of the island as environmental refugees.

Ten years passed but, no island sank! At the same time, the scientists of NASA had found out through research that in the polar region, ice has melted and fifty billion tons of water had mixed with the sea. Though enormous amount of water flowed into the sea why the islands did not sink? Interestingly, when the level of sea was checked near the islands, the sea level was found to be two and a half inches lower than before.*[16] This incident clearly shows us that the islands are rising.

(10)Sea caves indicate that the continents are rising.

On all the continents found on earth, caves are seen on the sea shore. To be specific, surrounding the continent Europe , there are numerous sea caves. These sea caves are formed due to the erosion caused by the sea. The roofs of caves thus formed are 20 or 30 feet above sea level.

Small ships can travel through most of the caves. How could have the roofs of caves which were formed due to the erosion by the sea have gone up to such a height? Many sea caves are found on the sea shore many hundreds of feet away from the sea and many feet high from the sea level. Many sea caves are also found dry without water. All these caves, the islands on which they are situated, the land surfaces and the continents show us clearly that the land is continuously rising from the sea. They say that when two land surfaces collide with each other, mountain ranges are formed. But, the Crete mountain region shows clearly that it did not form by the collision of a land.

The Australian continent is rising

Robert backer is a research scholar in the New England University of Australia .Every Sunday to take rest, he used to visit the Sydney Harbor where he once played and enjoyed with his friends when he was young. Incidentally one day, on the rocks he saw many nests made of lime and those resembled the nests of wasps. These nests were the nests of tubeworms which live in the sea. But, seeing it at such a height was something abnormal. The nests were about 7 feet above sea level where much erosion had not occurred.*[17]

These tubeworms need to be in water for at least six hours for survival. Under these circumstances, what could be the reason for the nests being built 7 feet above sea water level? Backer was able to arrive at only one explanation. That is, the sea level in Sydney harbor has decreased by seven feet. And this must have taken place recently. If it had happened long before, the nests would have been eroded to a greater extent.

Immediately he conveyed the information to Professor Peter flood and Dr. Bob Haworth and they decided to conduct an elaborate research. Subsequently, they went to the island New Caledonia which is 600 miles away from Australia and searched for the nests of the tubeworms. Curiously, there also they found the tubeworms’ nests at a height where the sea waves could not touch them.

Next, in island of Madagascar found near Africa in the Indian Ocean, in South Corona on the border of North American sea shore, and in South America on the sea shore of Brazil, they found the insects’ nests at a height above the sea level and based on their findings of 8 years, they finally announced that the sea level has fall down up to seven feet around the world.*[18] But, they did not reveal why it has dropped. Where did all the sea water go? What happened to it? There was no explanation for these. It is more than three billion years since the seas were formed. It is not possible for the sea to reduce its level throughout the world. So, only the continents have risen. This is the reason for the insects’ nests seen at a height above the sea level.

The South American Continent is rising.

Similar to the finding of fossils in the deserts, huge deposits of salt is also found. The largest salt deposit of the world has been discovered in the desert region of Uyuni which is situated on the south western side of Bolivia in South America . This salt desert is of an area of 4600 square miles. Ten billion tons (1 billion = 100 crores) of salt is found here.*[19]

This place is situated 11 thousand feet high from sea level. When seen from there only salt is seen in all directions as far as the eye could see and so this area appears as a white region. Similarly in Kavir desert in the Plateau of Iran, Death Valley in the central part of North America, Atacama Desert in South America, Great Victoria Desert in central Australia , Kalahari Desert and in Botswana in South Africa and Sahara Desert in North Africa , large deposits of salt are found. How could have salt of such magnitude be formed in deserts?

Already the fossils of sea organisms have been unearthed in deserts. So it is confirmed that all these deserts had been under the sea once upon a time and later have surfaced above from below the sea. When the sandy area rose above the sea level, some areas were lower and the sea water which stagnated in due course got evaporated and the large deposits of salt were formed.

The Antarctica continent is rising.

In March 2002, on the eastern corner, peninsular area, in the continent of Antarctica situated at the South Pole, the ice sheets which form on the land and extend on the sea suddenly broke into hundreds of pieces and were thrown in all directions. This incident surprised and stunned the scientists.. Geologist Eugene Dumac of the Michigan University stated “This is a new event which has never happened before”. David Wagon, a research scholar of the British Antarctic Research center has stated, “It is difficult to believe that 500 billion ton of glacier had disintegrated in thirty five days.” *[20]

Generally, due to the changes in temperature the layers of snow and ice at the poles melt very slowly into water and mix with the sea. To discuss the reason for the sudden breaking of the glacier on 4th and 5th April 2002, more than 60 scientists from 12 countries assembled in Hamilton College and discussed. It was announced that, the defective formation of the glacier was only responsible for its disintegration.

Why should the formation of the glacier suddenly disintegrate?

The layers of ice are spread out continuously on the land as well as the sea. The truth is when the peninsula area of Antarctica rose upwards, the formation was affected and it broke into pieces. This part of Antarctica is under the British and hence the arthropod Trilobite’s fossils have been found. So the reason for the sudden breakage is that this particular continent is rising. Similarly in Greenland at North Pole, sheets of ice covering the island had long cracks and these started sliding faster than before.

 In the North Pole area near the border of Ellesmere Island is an ice shelf called Ward Hunt on which many cracks have formed during 2002.*[21] Appearance of cracks on the ice shelves and these cracks breaking them, which had been silent for the past three thousand years, is only due to the difference in the rate of rising of the land surface and damaging the structure of the ice shelves.

A European research scholar, Dr.Remko scharroo after conducting a research through the satellite, ERS-1 has stated that, the level of the Arctic Ocean in the North Pole region is reduced by 2.17 millimeters starting from1995 – 2003.*[22] According to this theory, temperature rise is not the reason for the cracking and breaking of the ice shelves. It is because; the increase in the temperature would have resulted in the melting of ice and increased the ocean level.

But, the level has decreased! So, it becomes clear that the rising of the islands is responsible for the cracking of the ice shelves and the lowering in the level of the ocean.

(11) Where did the sand on Chennai Marina beach come from?

The sand on the sea shore of Marina Beach of Chennai city ( India , Tamil Nadu) was brought by the waves which deposited the sand there. But, what is the reason for the sand that was deposited by the sea waves to be found now above sea level?

We cannot think that the sea level has gone down. It is because the area of the sea is more than that of the land which is only one fourth. Moreover excluding the continent of Antarctica , all the other six continents have sandy sea shores on their coastal areas. So, if we say that the sea level has gone down, it applies to the whole world.

But, speaking about the whole world, there is no reason for the water level to drop. So, due to the rising of the land that is, the continents only, the sand deposited by the waves has risen above the sea level. For example, Hawaii Islands are situated in the center of the Pacific Ocean . Originally these islands were volcanoes in the sea bed and later rose up above the sea level. On the southern side of the Hawaiian island is filled with green colored sand. It is because, it is formed with an element called Olivine. Usually Olivine is found in the sea bed rock, basalt.

While the island of Hawaii rose up from the sea, as the sea waves eroded the basalt rock, the Olivine green sand also rose upward above sea level and formed the green colored sea shore. Similarly in the area where volcanic mountain rocks are found on the Hawaii Island , black colored sea shore sand is seen. As the sand brought by the sea waves and deposited at the bottom of the sea is seen above the sea level, we can come to a conclusion that the Hawaii Island has only risen. We cannot take a decision that the Pacific Ocean ’s level has gone down. Similarly the sand found on the Marina has also been brought by the sea waves and deposited at the bottom of the sea. But, the reason for the sand to be found above the sea level is that the land has risen up. Similarly, when large areas of land like islands and continents rise, earthquakes occur.

(12)Sea lion, a scientific mystery

Last year ,prince of Monaco visited Russia, where the regional governor in Russia has gifted him with a pair of rare kind of sea lion commonly called as ‘’nerpa’at present the Russian seals called as ‘’nerpa’’ living only in the land locked Baikal lake, which is situated at the center of the Asian continent. *[23]

Seals are generally living in the coastal area. DNA test has showed that the ancestors of this Russian seals were the ‘’ringed seals’’ which is now living in the northern sea. Therefore the question is how could the ancestors of the Russian seals reached the land locked Baikal Lake which is situated at the center of the Asian continent, hundreds of miles away from the northern sea?

When ground was dug to lay the foundation for the construction of a building in the city of Urumki in China , at two meter depth rocks were located. On it, black colored small and large fossils of fishes ranging from 6 centimeters to 20 centimeters and looking like painting were found. Though they were black in color, the scales, fins and tail were clearly embedded. When the researchers reveled that these fishes lived in the seas 200 million years ago, the people of the city were awe struck.

The reason is that, this city has no connection with the sea. This place is situated 2500 kilometers on the west of Pacific Ocean, 3400 kilometers on the south of Arctic Ocean, 6900 kilometers on the east of Atlantic Ocean and 2200 kilometers on the north of Indian Ocean ! .*[24] .

(13) Land is rising

Rising of some section of land formed the Grand Canyon valley

The Grand Canyon is a structure, formed by layers of rocky plates is one of the wonders of the world and was formed below the sea and has risen up. In the beginning when the earth was a planet made of molten rock, the upper layers slowly cooled and in different layers sedimentary rocks were formed. During very cold season, pipes that bring drinking water burst due to the freezing of the water inside them. It is because when water freezes, it expands and takes up more space. In the same way when the molten rock cools, its thickness increases. Moreover, as the density of the rocks is lesser than the molten rock, they rise upwards.

At the same time, they expand and occupy more area.. The Grand Canyon is formed by such sedimentary rocks which rose up and expanded. Below the sea at 3000 meters depth and in the center of the sea also, structures like the Grand Canyon are found. The Grand Canyon in North America has in it the fossils of Trilobite, sea shells and snails, which shows us that this land surface of the Grand Canyon has risen from below the sea.. When a part of the land rises, there are land slides in the surrounding areas in which the living things of the sea get buried. Later, when these portions of the land rise above the sea level, due to land slides the fossils get exposed.

(14)Tremors on the Moon

One more proof for stating that earth quakes occur due to the rising of the land are the tremors that occur on the moon. There are no continents on the moon. But, there are mountains, elevations and craters on the moon. Moreover moon quakes occur on the moon. Stating that the movement of the land only causes quakes is incorrect, because there are no continents on the moon. Hence, the rising of the land is the primary cause for earthquakes to occur.

Mountains formed by sedimentary rocks. Valleys and rocks are found on the planet, Mars too. But, there is no water in Mars. The truth that we understand from this is that, these sedimentary rocks are not formed by deposits of sediments. Instead, they have been formed by the gradual cooling of the molten material inside the earth and rise upwards.

(15) The Himalayas existed even before the so called India ’s collision.

It was believed that the Himalayas originated 55 million years ago. Researcher Wagner had stated that the Himalayas were formed 55 million years ago only due to the collision of the Indian continent with the continent of Asia is noteworthy. It should be noted that the fossils of sea animal called as trilobite which lived 500 million years ago also found on the Himalaya . Which indicate that the Himalaya was formed 500 million years ago. Therefore the so called collision of India which is said to be took place 50 million years ago caused the formation of the Himalaya is not correct.

When the continental plates collide with each other, mountains are supposed to be formed. As the continental plates move only a few centimeters per year, it was believed that mountains grew very slowly, but Dr. Carmala Garzione a researcher belonging to the University of Rochester has found out that, the Andes mountain range in South America is growing very fast.*[25] By observing the amount of rocky deposits which had undergone chemical reaction due to the isotope oxygen 18, and calculating the period during which it was formed, it could be predicted when and how fast a mountain had grown. The research conducted based on this showed that, the Andes mountain range had grown very fast 10 million and 7 million years ago. On this basis, Carmala Garzione surmised that the growth of mountains does not depend on the movement of the continents but should be based on something else. Similarly the Sierra Nevada Mountain in North America is also growing very fast.

(16)The Islands of Indonesia are continuously rising

Soon after Tsunami, which killed more than two and a half lakhs of people and had originated from the island, Sumatra, it was found out that, after the earthquake the north western part of the island simeulue, which was in that region had risen about three feet high above sea level.

On account of this, a new shore had formed on the north western part of the island. In addition to that; the sea sponges which were on the sea bed were visible above the sea level! Three months after the earthquake on 26th December, 2004, another quake occurred on 28th March 2005 after which simeulue was found to be four feet above sea level. Apart from this, for an area of about three hundred kilometers, sea sponges which are normally found below the sea could be seen from all visible areas!*[26]

Why did the island rise four feet above sea level?

As the molten rock keeps cooling gradually, the rocky plates that are formed at different levels are of less thickness and density and they keep rising continuously. The main reason is that, when the molten rock cools, the water and hot gases get released and the rocky plates that are formed are of lesser thickness than the magma in which they formed.

Water has a higher density and the ice cubes formed from it have a lower density and they tend to float on water Likewise, the molten rock material which has a higher density produces rocky plates which have a lower density and these move above sea level and form islands.

When new plates are produced by the molten rock material, they start moving upwards thereby pushing the plates which were already formed. The plates suddenly start rising upwards due to intense pressure. Similar to the ripples that are formed and expanded when a plate of water is hit at the centre from below with a finger, when the island simeulue, which was found in the central part of the Indian Ocean suddenly rose up, the water was pushed aside in all directions and only this resulted in Tsunami.

The frequent occurrences of earthquakes and Tsunami in Indonesia are only due to the sudden rising of the islands.

But, the geologists have come up with a different explanation for the earthquakes which occur there. They say that, about six and a half crores of years ago, India was an island on the southern part of the equator. It moved slowly towards north and collided with Asia about five crores of years ago and it is still continuing its movement. The geologists also opine that due to this movement, when the indo-Australian plate suddenly went below the Burmese plate on December 26th, 2004, an earthquake occurred. There is no truth in what they say because even six and a half crores of years ago India had been part of Asia in the same place as it is found now.

The fossils of mammals which lived in Asia six and a half years ago have been excavated in the form of bones by Professor Ashok Sahani of Punjab University and Professor G.V.R. Prasad of Jammu University in the village of Naskal at Andhra Pradesh and they prove that the above statement is true.*[27] So, as per the researchers’ opinion, India had not been an island on the southern part of the equator about six and a half crores of years ago. So, it is proved that even six and a half crores of years ago India had been part of Asia in the same place as it is found now and is not moving in the north eastern direction.

Therefore the indo-Australian plate did not go suddenly below the Burmese plate. So the earth quakes on 26 -12 -2004 and 28 – 3 -2005 and the Tsunami are only the result of the rising of the island, simeulue, above its original level.

(17)Rising of the earth’s crust is responsible for producing earthquakes,

Earthquake is caused due to the movement of the land is a myth.

The most important thing that is missing in this view is that there is no explanation for why earthquake occurs in the centre of the land instead of the peripheral area. Actually the land is rising in different places. This is the reason why earthquakes occur only in the central parts of the land. To be specific, after an earthquake occurred on September 30th of 1993, in the village named Killari, it was found that the land had risen about three feet in height. This shows that the rise of the land is the cause of the earthquake.

Reasons for the Rise of the Earth’s Crust

On September 30th 1993, the earthquake that hit the village, killari, situated in central part of India resulted in the death of more than eight thousand people and raised the land surface about three feet high. This elevation was seen in an area of around two kilometers.

Why did the earthquake occur?
The quake occurred only in killari, situated in central India and left two kilometers of land area raised. This proves that the earthquake occurred only due to the rise of the land.

Apart from this, the pictures taken by the satellite before the quake showed that the temperature of killari had also risen and the pictures taken after the quake showed it to be normal.*[28] After the earthquake occurred, on the borders of Andhra and Karnataka white colored smoke emitted from the ground. Why did the land rise? Why was the temperature more? Why did the land emit white colored smoke? We know that the molten rock material called magma is found inside the earth as we have seen it coming out through volcanoes. In the same way, when the molten rock, lava flows on the earth’s surface,

we can see the condensed steam and other gases in the form of white colored smoke. As the water and other hot gases are eliminated as steam, the molten rock cools down and turned in to rock. In the same way when the molten rock inside the earth starts cooling, water and other hot gases come out in the form of white smoke. Due to this, the temperature of the land rises.

Moreover when the molten rock cools and as the water and hot gases get released, the rocky plates that are formed are of less thickness. For example: water has a higher density and the ice cubes formed from it have a lower density and float on water. Likewise, the molten rock material which has a higher density produces rocky plates which have a lower density and move above the level of the molten rock. In the same way, when new plates are produced by the molten rock material, they start moving upwards there by pushing the plates which were already formed. On account of this movement, the edges of the plates rub against each other thereby causing earthquakes.

For example: in 1356 an earthquake occurred in the city Basel in Switzerland which is situated in central Europe . In the same city, an organization which produces electricity using the heat from underground, drilled two holes of five meters each on the earth in the year 2006.The project was to send cold water through the first hole which would be changed into steam using the heat of the molten rock and pushed out through the second hole and by rotating dynamos.

This would be converted into electricity. But, on the eighth day after the water was sent inside the earth, in the same place, the Richter scale recorded an earthquake with an intensity of 3.4.*[29] Even if atom bombs are tested underground, earthquakes do not occur. How could the water which seeped inside produce an earthquake? This clearly shows that the water which seeped inside the earth cooled the molten rock which in turn formed new plates that rose up and caused the earthquake.

Volcanic activity in central Europe .

Vogt land, which is situated in central Europe , had often been experiencing a number of minor earthquakes. In the same place, a researcher by the name Dr.Karin brauer collected the bubbles which came out along with an underground spring in a marshy area and through his research, found out that gases were emitted from a volcano.*[30]

Based on his research, he says that when the molten rock rises, the pressure of the gases increases and this results in the formation of cracks on rocks which may ultimately result in earthquakes. But for millions of years in the past, these gases have been coming out of the earth.
Apart from this, there are spaces for these gases to be eliminated. We have already seen this fact and the gases do not have enough pressure to bring about an earthquake. A few years ago from the mountainous part of Nilgiris in India , smoke were seen emanating from earth, but fortunately no earthquake was caused. Likewise, Matsushiro in central Japan also experienced a number of mild quakes. To find out the reason for these quakes, a researcher by the name yoshida collected Water from the hot water springs found there and through experimentation discovered that the water was from the molten rock found underground.*[31]

So, she surmises that,” The water which is underground comes out with great pressure and this produces cracks on the rocky plates and this results in earthquakes”. But, the water and gases which are underground have been surfacing through the spaces found between the rocky plates for millions of years in the past So, the reason for the continuous tremors and the elevation of land is only due to the slow rising of the rocky plates. For example Wyoming found in central part of North America has more than three hundred hot water springs. Due to the deposit of sulphur from the water, the rocks in that area appear yellowish in color. So, the area of hot water springs is referred to as yellow Stone Park . Each year that place experiences about two thousand mild tremors. Between January, 2008 and March 2008, 287 tremors have rocked the place. Moreover it has been found out through satellite research that the land area of 60 miles is continuously raising.

To be specific, starting from 2004 till 2006, the land area has been rising at the rate of 2.8 inches every year and has risen to a height of seven inches in three years. It is still rising. But research scholars say that, it is only the effect of the expansion of the molten rock due to heat.

But the surfacing of the water only shows that the molten rock is cooling. So the release of water and the gases from the molten rock cools the molten rock. This results in the formation of new plates and the rising in the land level in the central part of the continents and results in tremors in those areas only. There will be an earthquake tomorrow. One week before an earthquake struck the city of haicheng on 30th February, 1975, on the north eastern part of China , it was officially announced that a quake would strike the city.

People abandoned their houses and assembled in an open area in the snow fall. For one week nobody did any work. As announced there was an earthquake of 7.3 magnitudes which was recorded on the Richter scale. Two thousand and thirteen people lost their lives. It was estimated that if precaution had not been taken, the death toll would have exceeded one and a half lakhs! The whole world looked at China with surprise and when asked, they said that for the past one year slight tremors were occurring and they were gradually getting intensified. They also explained that, during the previous week there was tremendous change in the underground water table. But, in the next year, the earthquake which struck the city of Tang Shan situated in the north eastern part of China killed two and a half lakhs of people and severely wounded more than one and a half lakhs of people. Chinese geologists said that on this occasion there were no preceding tremors. During the earthquake in haicheng, sulphur gas and in Tang Shan carbon-di-oxide were eliminated from underground.

Regarding this incident, Carol Raymond is a geophysicist at NASA's, said “Only if we know how an earthquake is caused, we can warn about it in advance”.

How Does an Earthquake occur?

When the rocky plates under the ground rise and their edges rub with each other, an earthquake is caused. Moreover, the water and the gases found between them are under great pressure when these plates rise and so come above the surface of the earth.

Hence, it is understood that the hot gases and water which come out of the earth and the temperature changes are the most authentic warnings of an approaching earthquake. So, by closely and continuously monitoring the temperature changes through satellite observations and finding out the depth and temperature in which the molten rock is found in a particular place, the occurrence of an earthquake can be predicted in advance. Based on it, if precautions are taken, great loss to human life can be prevented.

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Contributing Writer  Scientist, G. Ponmudi. Chennai I am working as a junior assistant in the health department. And my qualification is Bsc (zoology). I have been working on earthquake research for the past five years. [email protected]


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