Disparaging Emotions In Negotiation - Emotion & Negotiation Go Hand
Abstract - We
always hear that conflicts arouse between family members,
friends, within organizations, within groups within nations…
but there is only solution to all these conflicts i.e., negotiation,
not only in solving the issue but to solve it in the eyes
of the concerned parties too. Negotiations are badly affected
by our emotions, mood, temperament & the situations in which
the conflicts arise. The main factor that accelerates conflict
or differences is our negative emotions regarding the issues
or the parties concerned. Disparaging emotions in Negotiation
- "Love & Negotiation makes the world go round. At
the bottom of a situation, when you break it down, It’s all
about love & negotiation.”
to this article one should know what are emotions and negotiations
and how these two are related to each other…
Emotions - achievable
- For many of us emotions are very personal states, difficult to
define or to identify except in the most obvious instances. Moreover,
many aspects of emotions seem unconscious to us. Even simple emotional
states appear to be much more complicated than states like hunger
and thirst. The word emotion includes a wide range of observable
behaviors, expressed feelings, and changes in the body state.
To clarify the
concept of emotions, three aspects of emotions can be taken into
1. Emotion is a feeling
that is private and subjective. Humans can report an extraordinary
range of states, which they can feel or experience.
2. Emotion is a state
of psychological arousal - an expression or display of distinctive
somatic and autonomic responses. This emphasis suggests that emotional
states can be defined by particular constellations of bodily responses.
3. Emotions are actions
commonly "deemed", such as defending or attacking in response to
a threat. Thus emotion is a mixture of ones feelings, psychological
arousal and actions that one performs in his or her life.
are an unavoidable part of human beings. And, are a part of
every negotiation. When we recognize that someone else is interfering
in achieving our goals or preventing us from getting what we want,
emotions often spring forth. Conflict becomes an inevitable result.
Thus it is perceived by threats or signs of disrespect which cause
emotions to blaze. The intensity of the emotion connotes its importance
to us. Thus the more important the situation & the stronger we feel
about it, the more likely it is that the conflict can turn destructive.
Negotiating is the process of getting the best terms once the other
side starts to act on their interest. Mark H. Mc Cormack - Negotiation
is a basic means of getting what you want from others.
to say Yes by Robert Fisher & William Ury According to Nierenberg
“Negotiation depends on communication… negotiation can be considered
an element of human behavior….dealt with by both the traditional
and the new behavioral sciences, from history, jurisprudence, economics,
sociology and psychology to cybernetics, general semantics, game
and decision making theory and general semantics, the full scope
of negotiation is to broad to be confined to one or even a group
of the existing behavioral sciences” The entire situation in negotiation
is bounded with emotions associated with mood, temperament, personality
& disposition. The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of
your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of
finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as
much of what you want as possible.
Emotion & Negotiation
go hand in hand - Emotions are often part of the group of intangible
needs we have in a negotiation. During negotiations, the decision
as to whether or not to settle rests in part on emotional factors.
Emotions have the potential to play either a positive or negative
role in negotiation. People often behave in certain ways as a direct
result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing.
When emotions are positive it increases the chances for reaching
agreement very soon. Negotiators experiencing positive emotions
during the process use less aggressive tactics & more creative,
show respect for other’s perspectives & even improved cognitive
ability. Those who experience empathy tend to facilitate & improve
communication as well. Conversely negative feelings have a damaging
impact. And, the process itself can create or increase the bad feelings
if rudeness or misrepresentation or challenges to our authority
is perceived….resulting in one party becoming antagonistic or wanting
revenge for the perceived slights. These feelings can obstruct discussion
& make it difficult to proceed in a constructive way. The two most
common negative emotions that impact negotiation are anger & fear.
negotiations in 3 ways. * Causes a loss of trust thus
clouding our objectives. * Narrow the focus from broader topics
to the anger-producing behaviors & * Misdirects the goal from
reaching agreement to getting even. It is important to deal
with anger directly & constructively. Fear can come from feeling
overwhelmed, unprepared or surprised. * Feeling the fear is
one thing, showing it is another. * Recognize that fear is
a natural response & use the heightened awareness that it
brings. But never show it!! * Practice projecting confidence.
Fake it till
you make it…. Our emotions get in our way regularly. Nothing
kills creativity quicker than our anger, pride, embarrassment,
envy, greed, or other strong negative emotion. Anger is often
an expression of fear, or lack of confidence in our ability
to get want we think we want. Anger is very much self centered.
Emotional outbursts tend to escalate rather than solve a conflict.
As we practice
creative negotiation, faith in our ability to turn challenges
into opportunities will increase. This self-confidence will help
us focus on problem solving and reduce the chances of falling back
on contention, negative emotion or competitive negotiation. Your
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Emotion in negotiation
- Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process.
Emotions have the potential to play either a positive or negative
role in negotiation. During negotiations, the decision as to whether
or not to settle rests in part on emotional factors. Negative emotions
can cause intense and even irrational behavior, and can cause conflicts
to escalate and negotiations to break down, but may be instrumental
in attaining concessions.
On the other hand,
positive emotions often facilitate reaching an agreement and helps
to maximize joint gains, but can also be instrumental in attaining
concessions. Positive and negative discrete emotions can be strategically
displayed to influence task and relational outcomes and may play
out differently across cultural boundaries. Emotion’s Positive affect
in negotiation Even before the negotiation process starts, people
in a positive mood have more confidence and higher tendencies to
plan to use a cooperative strategy.
During the negotiation,
negotiators who are in a positive mood tend to enjoy the interaction
more, show less contentious behavior, use less aggressive tactics
and more cooperative strategies. This in turn increases the likelihood
that parties will reach their instrumental goals, and enhance the
ability to find integrative gains. Indeed, compared with negotiators
with negative or natural affectivity, negotiators with positive
affectivity reached more agreements and tended to honor those agreements
more. Those favorable outcomes are due to better decision making
processes, such as flexible thinking, creative problem solving,
respect for others' perspectives, willingness to take risks and
higher confidence. Post negotiation positive affect has beneficial
consequences as well. It increases satisfaction with achieved outcome
and influences one’s desire for future interactions.
The PA (Positive
affectivity) and NA (Negative affectivity) aroused by reaching
an agreement facilitates the dyadic relationship, which result in
affective commitment that sets the stage for subsequent interactions.
PA also has its drawbacks: it distorts perception of self performance,
such that performance is judged to be relatively better than it
actually is. Thus, studies involving self reports on achieved outcomes
might be biased.
affect in negotiation Negative affect has detrimental effects
on various stages in the negotiation process. Although various negative
emotions affect negotiation outcomes, by far the most researched
is anger. Angry negotiators plan to use more competitive strategies
and to cooperate less, even before the negotiation starts. These
competitive strategies are related to reduce joint outcomes. During
negotiations, anger disrupts the process by reducing the level of
trust, clouding parties' judgment, narrowing parties' focus of attention
and changing their central goal from reaching agreement to retaliating
against the other side. Angry negotiators pay less attention to
opponent’s interests and are less accurate in judging their interests,
thus achieve lower joint gains. Moreover, because anger makes negotiators
more self-centered in their preferences, it increases the likelihood
that they will reject profitable offers.
help in achieving negotiation goals either: it reduces joint
gains and does not help to boost personal gains, as angry negotiators
don’t succeed in claiming more for them. Moreover, negative emotions
leads to acceptance of settlements that are not in the positive
utility function but rather have a negative utility.
of negative emotions during negotiation can sometimes be beneficial:
legitimately expressed anger can be an effective way to show one's
commitment, sincerity, and needs. Moreover, although NA reduces
gains in integrative tasks, it is a better strategy than PA in distributive
tasks (such as zero-sum). Conditions for emotional affect Research
indicates that negotiator’s emotions do not necessarily affect the
negotiation process. Albarracin et al. (2003) suggested that there
are two conditions for emotional affect, both related to the ability
(presence of environmental or cognitive disturbances) and the motivation:
of the affect: requires high motivation, high ability or both.
2. Determination that
the affect is relevant and important for the judgment: requires
that the motivation, the ability or both are low. According to this
model, emotions are expected to affect negotiations only when one
is high and the other is low. When both ability and motivation are
low the affect will not be identified, and when both are high the
affect will be identify but discounted as irrelevant for judgment.
The effect of the partner’s emotions Most studies on emotions in
negotiation focus on the effect of the negotiator’s own emotions
on the process.
However, what the
other party feels might be just as important, as group emotions
are known to affect processes both at the group and the personal
levels. When it comes to negotiations, trust in the other party
is a necessary condition for its emotion to affect, and visibility
enhances the effect. Emotions contribute to negotiation processes
by signaling what one feels and thinks and can thus prevent the
other party from engaging in destructive behaviors and to indicate
what steps should be taken next. Partner’s emotions can have two
basic effects on negotiator’s emotions and behavior: mimetic/ reciprocal
or complementary. For example, disappointment or sadness might lead
to compassion and more cooperation. In a study by Butt et al. (2005)
which simulated real multi-phase negotiation, most people reacted
to the partner’s emotions in reciprocal, rather than complementary,
were found to have different effects on the opponent’s feelings
and strategies chosen: * Anger caused the opponents to place
lower demands and to concede more in a zero-sum negotiation, but
also to evaluate the negotiation less favorably. It provoked both
dominating and yielding behaviors of the opponent.
* Pride led to more
integrative and compromise strategies by the partner.
* Guilt or regret
expressed by the negotiator led to better impression of him by the
opponent, however it also led the opponent to place higher demands.
On the other hand, personal guilt was related to more satisfaction
with what one achieved.
* Worry or disappointment
left bad impression on the opponent, but led to relatively lower
demands by the opponent. Conclusion… Emotions always play an important
role in negotiation …. Without emotions we individual couldn’t survive
in this rationale world…….. Negotiations reduces our conflict and
bring certain positive solutions which is acceptable to everyone
& everywhere, it’s just not coming or getting the issue solved but
it should be solved in the eyes of the concerned people too………..Emotions
are disparaging in negotiation & it would even create war like situation
when hasn’t tackled properly at right time and at right place…..We
human could not survive without the people surrounding us so why
not to handle the situation in a more healthy and good sense through
application of positive negotiations in all our dealings and concerns…..
He who has learned to disagree without being disagreeable has discovered
the most valuable secret of a diplomat- Robert Estabrook
By: Sonalee Srivastava,
Lecturer, School of Management Sciences, Khushipur, PO: Bachhaon
(NH-2 Bypass) VARANASI - 221011 firstname.lastname@example.org